Thursday, September 3, 2020
Lennie and George in Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck Essay Paper Lennie and George are well not the same as the other farm laborers predominantly not at all like the laborers who are completely demonstrated to be forlorn. George and Lennie have one another. They hand-off on one another and their fantasies together. There is an obligation of trust and amicable connection between the two boss characters which is grievously featured in the closing lines of the novel. The new Ã¢â¬ËOf Mice and MenÃ¢â¬â¢ by John Steinbeck is set in the mid 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s after the surrender of the New York divider road showcase known as the downturn mature ages. In this clasp there was substantial joblessness ; transitory specialists from all over America came to California where the novel is set in the Salinas vale in chase of odds of work. The spread itself is a microcosm of the life for transitory specialists in that cut. their uncertainties are appeared through the characters, for example, Curley. Candy. CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wedded lady what's more the life of Black individuals through Crooks. All the characters are desolate aside from Lennie and George who have one another and this is appeared through their deepest desires. We will compose a custom paper test on Lennie and George in Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck Essay explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now We will compose a custom exposition test on Lennie and George in Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck Essay explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer We will compose a custom exposition test on Lennie and George in Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck Essay explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer Lennie and Georges history together opens up when George exchanges to Reduce a character that everybody regards. indeed, even Curley. George straightforwardly addresses Reduce about the occurrence when George advises Lennie to jump into the stream jestingly. be that as it may, to everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s shock Lennie jumps in without oppugning George non picking up he can non swim and about suffocates if George didnÃ¢â¬â¢t liberation him. indeed, even so Lennie says thanks to George for rescuing him despite the fact that it was George who advised him to make it in the primary topographic point. Now GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s fear is appeared at LeannieÃ¢â¬â¢s failure to grok consistent and unlogical things. George acknowledges at that minute that on the off chance that he is non cautious Lennie could make the mistaken thing again. GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s different trepidations are other than appeared in the episode at weed. while talking about it to diminish he portrays Lennie being Ã¢â¬ËslowÃ¢â¬â¢ as he gets a kick out of the chance to contact all that he loves. simply needs to encounter it. So he reaches to encounter a misss bronzed gown and the miss yell. Lennie gets frightened everything he can accept to make is keep on and that George needed to hit him with a fencing post to do him permit travel. Again LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s quality turns into an issue and the creator about reporting the great beyond. George fears Lennie non seeing right from inaccurate and his quality frenzies George doing him accept that he may to what he did at weed again. Lennie is demonstrated to be a child in a grown-up guys natural structure. all through the book he needs to be enlightened their fantasy regarding like a bed cut account and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t feel shutting until he has been told it. Also, again like a child he enjoys delicate and anger things partner to the ground why he gets a kick out of the chance to contact gowns. LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s most prominent trepidation of the everything is that he wonÃ¢â¬â¢t have the option to be given the coneies on the off chance that he accomplished something incorrectly like the episode at weed again. he is other than scared of his ain quality and non having the option to permit travel. Lennie and GeorgeÃ¢â¬â¢s fantasy about holding a topographic purpose of their ain Ã¢â¬Ëliving of the fat of the landÃ¢â¬â¢ and Lennie and his lucerne spot and be givening the coneies. keepÃ¢â¬â¢s them voyaging and believing that they wonÃ¢â¬â¢t need to stress over Lennie making the erroneous things again. what's more, George having the option to make what he needs make and non accept about what will go on to Lennie. Their fantasies make trust in different characters like Candy and Crooks in any event, for a short piece. Apparently. apparently Lennie. in light of his psychological immatureness. is completely dependent upon George for his continuance and for getting work at arranged spreads. Similarly of import by the by. is the degree to which George depends on Lennie for organization in the overall threatening and alone condition of the transitory worker. As George confesses to Reduce while talking himself and Lennie Ã¢â¬ËitÃ¢â¬â¢s a cluster more pleasant to go around with a feline you knowÃ¢â¬â¢ . It very well may be seen ; in this manner that George may non be with Lennie carefully out of a feeling of empathizing or obligation to LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s auntie Clara. From the beginning of the new Steinbeck brings the requests up in the leaders of the peruser regarding why these characters ought to be associated with such an impossible organization: George is shy of height. shrewd and endeavors affirmation. Lennie on the different manus. is a mammoth of a grown-up male. overwhelming in his pace and his leader of a juvenile child. The class of situations that develop are unfortunate. its greater part begins with Curley and his instability about his height and his ever ready to pick a fight with greater work powers to turn out he is non frail. Steinbeck calls him figuring and hard-nibbled and gives him reptilian energize resembling characteristics stand foring his conduct to a crocodile while Lennie is appeared to hold shoulder and Equus caballus like characteristics contrasted with quicken creatures with honorable qualities. Ch 3 Begins when Curley flops in searching for Slim who he believes is with his hitched lady. At the point when Slim reenters the room expressing Curley that heÃ¢â¬â¢s tired of Curley asking him about his wedded lady. Curley canÃ¢â¬â¢t fight with Slim so he moves to Carlson who cautions him non to pick a fight with him. as they all join in Curley feels unprotected thus goes on to Lennie given any explanation to battle with him. As Curley battles him. Lennie calls out of frenzy and goes to George for help as he was exorbitantly terrified to help himself. George in a split second gets onto his pess yelling Ã¢â¬ËGive it to him Lennie. donÃ¢â¬â¢t Lashkar-e-Taiba him make itÃ¢â¬â¢ . George feared LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s quality yet he wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t permit Lennie travel down like that he was defensive over him. As Curley goes for another hit to the blood secured face. Lennie snatches his clench hand. Curley is portrayed to slump as a fish. At that point just like in weed Lennie clutched the shut clench hand being squashed by LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s manus. It took both George and Slim to do Lennie permit travel. Curley was cautioned non to express a word about what occurred. After this CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wedded lady turned out to be truly intrigued by what happened truly happened to CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s manus yet figure addressed her. When Lennie murders the whelp in the horse shelter. while asking what to make CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wedded lady comes in. despite the fact that he shouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t converse with her he does. she discloses to him how she is forlorn and just needs individual to talk unnecessarily. other than how troubled she is in her marriage to Curley. this is the solitary point in the novel where her story comes out. how she was neer cherished at place. how she wedded Curley to procure off from her life. her fantasies about going celebrated in films. As Lennie feels her hair blowholes rehash themselves he canÃ¢â¬â¢t permit travel and in her fight to secure free and LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s dread that she will name George he breaks her cervix in exertion to quiet her again his powerlessness to order his quality has taken a curve for the most exceedingly terrible. He understands what he has done and recalls that on the off chance that he did anything terrible George said to make a trip to the coppice where heÃ¢â¬â¢d happen him at that place. so Lennie quickly and delicately leaves. Candy is the first to happen her in the horse shelter and gets George who knows quickly what has happened he advises confect to permit him travel to the bunk house first so tell the rest of them so he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t articulation included. There dream is annihilated and candy implications CurleyÃ¢â¬â¢s wedded lady. at the point when he tells the rest of them Curley shows no sign of regret everything he can make is accept about getting Lennie back. As they all take off to happen Lennie. George figures out how to happen him first by the lake ; even now he is as yet apprehensive he wonÃ¢â¬â¢t have the option to be given the coneies. George realizes that there is no way out for them. cognizing Curley he would simply want to murder him he wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t put him in gaol. also, in the event that he let him venture to every part of the Lennie couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t articulation after himself he would perish without supplement. safe house and individual to care for him. George realized that he would hold to execute him when he discovered Lennie. Much the same as CandyÃ¢â¬â¢s Canis familiaris to set him out of his wretchedness for the enthusiasm of Lennie. Other than he couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t permit individual else do it he informed Lennie regarding their fantasy one final clasp as he disclosed to it he delicately put the weapon to the dorsum of LennieÃ¢â¬â¢s caput without him picking up and variable him. it was an understanding killing. At the terminal it is Slim who solaces him in expressing George that he needed to make it. Catalog: Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck
Posted by sheilamille74 at 5:31 PM
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Ways to deal with Exceptional Psychology Essay Analysis and psychodynamic treatments are conceivable in mediation for hydrocephalus. This methodology centers around changing hazardous practices, sentiments, and contemplations by finding their oblivious implications and inspirations. Psychoanalytically arranged treatments are portrayed by a nearby working organization among advisor and patient. Patients find out about themselves by investigating their connections in the helpful relationship. While analysis is firmly related to Sigmund Freud, it has been expanded and adjusted since his initial definitions. Psychoanalytic treatments have a solid research base affirming their viability. Hydrocephalus is normally the consequence of another clinical issue inside the skull. Clinical intercessions of hydrocephalus normally incorporate a careful shunt or prescription or both. Advisor and patients ought to have a decent connection with one another. Intellectual methodology Cognitive methodology can be either applied in hydrocephalus intercession. Psychological treatment underscores what individuals think as opposed to what they do. Psychological specialists accept that its broken reasoning that prompts useless feelings or practices. By changing their contemplations, individuals can change how they feel and what they do. The specialist job is to reinforce and empower the groups of the customer that there is despite everything trust inspite of the undesirable condition. The advisor can change the mentality of the customer and the groups of the customer to at present look in the inspirational viewpoint of the circumstance. While there is no remedy for this infirmity, there are as yet two careful treatment that can be applied to Hydrocephalus. These are Shunt Placement and Third Ventriculostomy. Shunt Placement redirects the progression of cerebrospinal liquid (CSF) from a site inside the focal sensory system (CNS) to another zone of the body where it very well may be retained as a major aspect of the circulatory procedure. For certain individuals, hydrocephalus treatment can be performed utilizing an elective strategy called third ventriculostomy. With this alternative, a neuroendoscope(a little camera intended to imagine little and hard to-arrive at careful areas)allows a human services supplier to see the ventricular surface utilizing fiber optic innovation. The extension is guided into position with the goal that a little opening can be made in the floor of the third ventricle, permitting the CSF to sidestep the block and stream toward the site of resorption around the outside of the cerebrum. Ways to deal with treating hydrocephalus are both patient-centered and family-focused. Specialist ought to never dismiss the way that the customer is , above all else, an individualÃ¢â¬not just a patient.
Posted by sheilamille74 at 8:10 PM
Friday, August 21, 2020
Question: Talk about The Structural and Functional of Human Body. Answer: General Anatomy and its Functions Human life systems is the part of science that manages the various structures of human body. The auxiliary and useful unit of human body is cell. Cells together structure the tissue, which thus frames organs and organ frameworks, in the end shaping the entire life form. Name and the short portrayal of the human organ frameworks are referenced underneath: The skeletal framework is the structure of the body, which bolsters the entire body and the inward organs. In grown-ups 206 bones contain the skeletal framework. Different capacities incorporate capacity of minerals and creation of platelets in the bone marrow. There are three sorts of muscle in the body, the skeletal muscle/intentional muscle (which is under human control), smooth muscle/automatic muscle (which isn't under human control) and cardiovascular muscle (found in heart). We control the skeletal muscles for our every day works like strolling, running, grasping composition, talking, etc. Smooth muscles are found in the inward organs, controlling their different developments. Cardiovascular muscles of heart contract and loosen up ceaselessly siphoning blood all through the body. The stomach related framework is comprised of mouth, pharynx, throat, stomach, small digestive system, internal organ, pancreas, nerve bladder and liver. Elements of stomach related framework incorporate biting of food, gulping, peristalsis, discharge of stomach related juices, separate of food particles and assimilation. The respiratory framework involves the nasal depression, pharynx, larynx, trachea and lungs. Trachea gets stretched inside the lungs in the long run finishing into the alveolar sacs. Its essential capacity is gas trade with the earth. Moreover it assumes significant job in the bodys barrier framework and digestion of particular sort of medications. Cardiovascular framework comprises of the heart and the veins. Heart siphons blood all through the body which conveys the respiratory gases, supplements, hormones, and so forth. The sensory system comprises of cerebrum, spinal string and nerves. It controls all the organ frameworks of the body including the reflex activities, body pose, development, feeling, memory, discourse, instinctual conduct and so on. The endocrine framework is comprised of the endocrine organs, thymus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, ovary, testis and so forth. Hormones discharged from endocrine organs control different elements of the body like development, digestion, water and electrolyte balance, ovulation, spermetogenesis and so on. Excretory framework is comprised of kidney, ureters and urinary bladder. Urinary framework discharges abundance water and waste results of the body. Kidney is additionally engaged with bodys corrosive base parity. Kidney produces hormone rennin, erythropoietin and so forth. The integumentary framework is comprised of skin, hair, nails, sweat organs, sebaceous organs, ceruminous organs and so forth. Primary elements of this framework are insurance of the body, temperature homeostasis, and nutrient D blend, etc. The male regenerative framework incorporates testis, fundamental vesicles, bulbourethral organ, prostate organ, epididymis, vas deferens, ejaculatory conduits, urethra, spermatic line, scrotum and penis. There are two fundamental elements of this framework arrangement of sperms and emission of hormones (testosterone, inhibin, activin, estrogen and so on.). Female regenerative framework incorporates ovary, fallopian tube, uterus, vagina, mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, vestibule, bulbs of the vestibule and vestibular organs. The two primary elements of this framework are-oogenesis and emission of hormones (estrogen, progesterone). Justification behind Caseys Symptoms In the given contextual investigation Casey went angling with her companions on a hot bright day, without having anything for breakfast. He stood lower leg somewhere down in water for quite a while and by noon was feeling woozy and sick. Various reasons might be liable for the wellbeing condition looked by Casey. The Integumentary System The integumentary framework (skin) of our body assumes a significant job in controlling the internal heat level. Warmth is lost through the outside of the skin by radiation and dissipation of sweat (Bai et al., 2014). Casey may have encountered the manifestations because of warmth weariness. Despite the fact that she wore a cap and sun safe garments, spending quite a while under the sun may have caused liquid consumption and increment in the bodys center calm that can bring about queasiness and discombobulation. Fundamental Body Chemistry The ordinary pH of the human body is about 7.4. Interruption in the pH can conceivably disturb all the metabolic and physiologic procedures happening inside the body. Further, for appropriate working of the cells and the sensory system an ideal electrolyte equalization and vitality is required (Skidmore-Roth, 2016). As Casey didn't have any nourishment for breakfast and just conveyed 600ml of water, which was insufficient for the given whether conditions she could have experienced drying out and absence of vitality causing sickness and wooziness. The Neurological System The sensory system, basically the Brain is a crucial part for the typical working of all the physiological procedures. The Brain requires a nonstop gracefully of blood and glucose to work in a proficient way. Representing significant stretches of time may cause the circulatory strain in the Brain to bring down coming about into absence of oxygen and supplement gracefully to the mind (Schml, 2013). This may be another reason for the side effects obvious in Casey. References Bai, L., Ding, G., Gu, S., Bi, P., Su, B., Qin, D., ... Liu, Q. (2014). The impacts of summer temperature and warmth waves on heat-related sickness in a beach front city of China, 20112013.Environmental research,132, 212-219. Schml, F. (2013). Neuronal components and the treatment of movement sickness.Pharmacology,91(3-4), 229-241. Skidmore-Roth, L. (2016).Mosbys Drug Guide for Nursing Students. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Posted by sheilamille74 at 5:52 PM
Thursday, June 18, 2020
1. Introduction Traditional mobile telephony is associated predominantly with first and second generation (1G and 2G) communication networks. These technologies enabled voice to be transmitted through radio and digital channels. It is widely known that the only function of the earliest mobile phones were to provide a two-way communication through the voice channel (Zheng and Ni, 2006:82), where the parties could simultaneously speak and hear each other. Nevertheless, the traditional understanding of mobile telephony has undergone considerable changes recently. Contemporary mobile operators already use third and fourth generation (3G and 4G) communication networks (Talukdar, 2010:38) and these new generations of mobile phones support such functions as video calling, mobile TV, MMS, high-speed internet access and complex mobile applications and this breakthrough was possible due to the fast development of mobile computing technologies (Talukdar, 2010:38; Heckmann, 2005:20). The literature review is aimed at a critical discussion of the impacts produced by mobile computing on traditional mobile telephony. 2. Theories on Mobile Computing and Its Influence In accordance with Mastorakis (2009:479), mobile computing may be defined as a form of interaction between a human and a computer implying that a computer device may be easily transported by the user. The researcher states that the key mobile computing devices are laptops, palmtops, smartphones and ordinary mobile phones (Mastorakis, 2009:479). This section of literature review critically discusses the main theories on the development of mobile computing and its influence on the mobile telephony. 2.1. Aspect Models of Mobile Computing It is argued by Boronowsky et al. (2006:11) that mobile computing can be viewed through the prism of the three-aspect model. The researchers have built a theoretical framework, which identifies three main aspects of mobile computing, namely mobile communication, mobile software and mobile hardware. The first aspect, mobile communication, means that mobile computing is impossible without particular data protocols, properties of communication, data format and the data transfer technologies (Boronowsky et al., 2006:11). The second aspect, mobile software, implies that special mobile applications are necessary for mobile computing. Finally, the mobile hardware aspect emphasises that the mobile computing development requires innovation in mobile devices and components (Boronowsky et al., 2006:11). It may be critically remarked that the three-aspect model provides a theoretical grounding to the impact of mobile computing technologies on traditional mobile telephony: correspondin gly, the influence is also three-aspect. Firstly, technological progress in mobile computing has led to the development of mobile communication and more specifically data protocols, methods of data transfer and types of communication networks have changed (Grant and Meadows, 2006:173). Secondly, the development of mobile hardware has led to technological innovations of mobile phones and smartphones as they acquired new functions such as internet access, Bluetooth, mobile cameras, accelerometer, etc. Thirdly, technological progress in mobile software stimulated the development of mobile phone applications (Business Link, 2010:1). An alternative aspect model of mobile computing was formulated by Heckmann (2005:20). The researcher argues that since the interaction with intelligent environments supposes that the user can move around, results from the research area of mobile computing can be integrated into the situated interaction within ubiquitous computing (Heckmann (2005:20) . The model is two-aspect and Heckmann (2005:20) identifies device-related and human-related aspects of mobile computing. This model is different from the framework provided by Boronowsky et al. (2006:11) where the latter singled out software and hardware aspects. Heckmann (2005:20) includes the hardware and software aspects into the device category and it can be assumed that the model offered by Heckmann (2005:20) is less detailed. Nevertheless, it emphasises the importance of human-related aspects. In accordance with Heckmann (2005:20), the impact of mobile computing on traditional mobile telephony has two dimensions. Both devices and users have undergone changes during the process of technological development (Dawson, 2005:63), however, the human-related aspect is less relevant for this research project since it is focused on the changes in mobile hardware and software. 2.2. Level Models of Mobile Computing Level models of mobile computing reveal hierarchical structure (Goggin and Hjorth, 2008:47). Kumkum (2010:3) formulated the three-level model of mobile computing. The researcher differentiated between such levels as macro mobility, micro mobility and ad hoc mobility. Macro mobility is associated with the growth of the global communication network and positive environmental influences. For instance, it is impossible to forecast substantial technological advances in mobile hardware and software if communication networks are local and small (Kumkum, 2010:3). Micro mobility is associated with the mobility characteristics of a particular device and it is argued that this level is subjected to the macro mobility level. In other words, there is no need to stimulate micro mobility if macro mobility is limited. Furthermore, mobile devices should not be small in size if there are only local communication networks. Kumkum (2010:3) argues that ad-hoc mobility is situational mobility whic h refers to every particular act of information sharing. The three-level model can be critically evaluated only with the reference to the discussed question. The mobile telephony network is global, which means that the macro mobility level is not limited to only local communication frameworks (Mastorakis, 2009:479). In turn, micro mobility is not limited either as typical mobile phones and smartphones can be used with mobile operator networks all over the world. According to the model, this stimulates further growth of mobile computing technologies in mobile telephony. Furthermore, unlimited macro mobility has led to greater micro mobility. Mobile phones would be useless if they were very large and heavy and vice versa, if mobiles phones were large and heavy, macro mobility would be limited (Kotulic and Clark, 2004:597). The strength of the model is that it explains the relationship between mobile computing and mobile telephony. However, one of the weaknesses is that the ad -hoc mobility level is not given enough attention by Kumkum (2010:3). It can be argued that ad-hoc mobility implies conditions in which data transfer occurs (Mastorakis, 2009:479). Alternatively, Umar (2006:29) argues that mobile computing has always been implemented in commercial projects. Hence, the development of mobile computing and its influence are determined by the relationships between consumers and businesses. For this reason, the scholar differentiates between three levels of mobile computing, namely customer level, B2C [business to customer] and B2B [business to business] (Umar, 2006:29). Nevertheless, it may be critically remarked that the three-level model has excessive focus on commercial relations between the users and sellers of mobile computing technologies (Srivastava and Teo, 2009:267). 2.3. Result Models of Mobile Computing Kaschek (2008:135) gave theoretical grounding to the process migration model of mobile computing. It is suggested that this the ory can be presented as a result model since it emphasises particular benefits and effects of the technology. Kaschek (2008:135) argues that process migration is one of the key benefits of mobile computing, where process migration means that mobile devices can share processes within a communication network. It does not matter if this network is wireless or wired, indeed, mobile computing is useless without the migration of processes. Kumkum (2010:3) agrees that it enables movement of the programming environment and application to desired location (Kumkum, 2010:3). Furthermore, it is summarised that the resulting flexibility and reliability are important and necessary (Kumkum, 2010:3). The influence of advanced mobile technologies may be seen in the fact that mobile devices are now able to share a greater number of processes. For instance, the earliest mobile phones were able to send and receive data only in the voice format. Technological progress in mobile computing has en abled the sharing of data in different formats such as pictures, video signals, multi-media files, audio files, etc. (Goggin and Hjorth, 2008:115). It is also reported that new technologies of voice sharing have appeared. For example, there is Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) technology, which allows mobile devices to send voice via the internet instead of the traditional telephone channel. This technology is widely implemented in contemporary mobile phones and smartphones and can be viewed as another influence of mobile computing on traditional telephony (Talukdar, 2010:38). Nevertheless, not all theorists are ready to admit the positive influence and results of mobile computing. Upadhyaya (2005:173) argues that the development of mobile computing has led to considerable security problems. Free access public networks do not guarantee that the personal information of a user will be protected. Furthermore, mobile phones and smartphones have weaker software and hardware re sistance to viruses and other malware (Business Link, 2010:1). Bernardo and Bogliolo (2005:241) are convinced that the development of mobile computing technologies has led to the increased power consumption of mobile devices. The point is that contemporary mobile applications and large-size screens of smartphones require more power. As a result, consumers are not able to use their devices for a long period of time. In addition, the size of the battery has also increased, which can be considered a serious limitation to the micro mobility of devices (Kotulic and Clark, 2004:597). Another negative result of mobile computing are the potential health hazards. It is argued by Cerin and Li (2007:247) that the development of mobile computing has led to serious health risks. For instance, the number of car accidents with the drivers using mobile devices has increased recently (Cerin and Li, 2007:247). It may be argued that all these negative influences and limitations have changed t he mobile telephony. Mobile computing has made mobile devices multi-functional and smart. However, at the same time it has come with side effects. 3. Hardware and Software Strategies of Nokia and Apple As it is suggested by the given theories, the traditional mobile telephony has been always influenced by innovations and advances in mobile computing technologies. For instance, it is reported by Bradley (2011:1) that Nokia, one of the largest communication companies, entered a strategic alliance with Microsoft. This decision should be understood as a software strategy of the Finnish company. In the near future, Nokias smartphones will support the Windows Phone 7 operating system. It is argued that for Nokia to bet on Microsofts new phone platform is an incredible vote of confidence but it is also a natural partnership given the various points of synergies (Bradley, 2011:1). Windows Phone 7 is a completely new level of mobile computing and this mobile operating system is a powerful platform for individuals and businesses. Furthermore, the software strategy is also aimed at strengthening Nokias competitive advantage against Apple (Bradley, 2011:1). It is expected that the a doption of the Windows Phone 7 OS by Nokias smartphones will enable the use of more advanced applications. Furthermore, Nokia will continue a building software base for its touchscreen technologies and the new operating system allows for more efficient human-device interaction. Finally, Nokias users will be able to use Microsoft Office applications directly from their phone (TechNet Magazine, 2011:1). The software strategy of Nokia is consistent with the three-aspect model formulated by Boronowsky et al. (2006:11). The level model by Umar (2006:29) can be also applied to this strategy and Nokia used this strategic decision to introduce changes in customer and business levels. In accordance with the Mac Daily News (2007:1), Apples practice of producing equivalent consumer and professional applications suggests they may pursue professional versions of iWeb or iTune (Mac Daily News, 2007:1). The companys software strategy is to develop creative applications, which will be dema nded in the market. Regardless of the fact that there are equivalents produced by competitors, Apple is not afraid of providing an alternative. At the same time, the company has always remained highly innovative. For instance, the company developed the multi-touch ecosystem, which influenced human-device interaction to a considerable degree (Info World, 2009:1). Apples hardware strategy has always revealed that mobile telephony is influenced by advances in mobile computing technology. For example, iPad 2, the second generation of Apples tablet computer, was launched in March 2011. Regardless of the fact that sales of the iPad 1were still successful, the company introduced a new device (Mobile Computing Today, 2011:1). It should be specified that iPad contains a 3G module, which enables it to be used for mobile telephony. In addition, the device provides rich possibilities of using various applications, internet and accelerometer. The only significant difference with the iPa d 2 is that the second generation device acquired back and front cameras and this provides greater possibilities for video calling (Word Cast, 2011:1). As it may be understood, the iPad is an example of a multi-format device. It is a mobile tablet computer, which provides rich multimedia and communication possibilities. 4. Empirical Evidence Herzog et al. (2007:495) pursued an empirical investigation, which was aimed at the identification of the relationship between mobile computing advances and the development of mobile telephony. The researcher conducted a case study of Germany and its telecommunication industry. Herzog et al. (2007:495) obtained secondary data from the Mobile Research Centre in Bremen. It is concluded that the recent innovations in mobile computing have a multi-aspect effect on mobile telephony. The scholars argue that the main aspects of the effects are the development of hardware and software (Herzog et al., 2007:495). For instance, it is reported that Siemens made serious attempts to increase battery capacity in mobile devices. Furthermore, all mobile phone producers constantly upgrade software so that mobile devices could support new applications. One of the main advantages of the case study conducted by Herzog et al. (2007:495) is that the researchers identified and measured the influen ce of mobile computing on traditional mobile telephony. The findings may be compared with the three aspect model formulated by Boronowsky et al. (2006:11). Herzog et al. (2007:495) analysed only two of the three aspects: hardware and software, however, the researcher failed to consider the aspect of mobile communication. Another limitation may be seen in the fact that the results of case studies can hardly be generalised. Fjellheim et al. (2005:75) pursued a different empirical investigation aimed at the analysis of limitations associated with mobile computing. The researchers argue that mobility raises new issues such as more dynamic context, limited computing resources, and frequent disconnections (Fjellheim et al., 2005:75). Regardless of the fact that mobile technologies are transportable and convenient to use, they have important limitations and weaknesses. According to the scholars, the most important limitations are energy consuming software, low battery capacity and security problems. Fjellheim et al. (2005:75) argue that mobile computing technologies do not solve the problems of mobile telephony but simply add new ones. The findings of the researchers can be compared with the arguments provided by Upadhyaya (2005:173) and Bernardo and Bogliolo (2005:241). One of the key weaknesses of the study is that Fjellheim et al. (2005:75) are excessively pessimistic about the development of mobile computing. 5. Summary It may be summarised that the key theories on mobile computing and its development are aspect, level and result models. Aspect models identify such dimensions of mobile computing as mobile communication, mobile software and mobile hardware. From this standpoint, the impact of mobile computing on traditional mobile telephony has three dimensions. Level models single out such levels as macro mobility, micro mobility and ad-hoc mobility and this theory implies that micro mobility is always limited by the degree of macro mobility. In the case of mobile telephony, this limitation is reduced to a minimum. Finally, the result models suggest that the influence of mobile computing may be both positive and negative: positive influence was seen in the process migration; negative influence is associated with security problems and power consumption. Nokia and Apple were found to have different software and hardware strategies and Nokia relies on strategic alliances to gain new mobile comp uting technologies, whereas Apple conducts a strategy of innovation and product differentiation. References Bernardo, M. and Bogliolo, A. (2005) Formal methods for mobile computing: 5th International School on Formal Methods for the Design of Computer, New York: Springer. Boronowsky, M., Herzog, O., Knackfuss, P. and, Lawo, M. (2006) Wearable computing Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å" an approach or living labs3rd International Forum on Applied Wearable Computing, Berlin: VDE Verlag. Bradley, T. (2011) Analysis: Nokia-Microsoft deal is a win for Apple, [online] Available at: https://www.macworld.com.au/news/analysis-nokia-microsoft-deal-is-a-win-for-apple-24333/ [Accessed 22 April 2011]. Business Link (2010) Information security best practice, [online] Available at: https://www.businesslink.gov.uk/bdotg/action/detail?itemId=1075406928type=RESOURCES [Accessed on 7 December 2010]. Cerin, C. and Li, K. (2007) Advances in grid and pervasive computing: second international conference, New York: Springer. Dawson, R. (2005) Developing knowledge-based client relationships: the future of pro fessional services, 2nd ed., New York: Elsevier, p. 63. Fjellheim, T., Milliner, S. and Dumas, M. (2005) Middleware support for mobile applications, International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, Vol. 1, Issue 2, pp. 75-88. Goggin, G. and Hjorth, L. (2008) Mobile technologies: from telecommunications to media, London: Taylor Francis. Grant, A. and Meadows, J. (2006) Communication technology update, New York: Focal Press. Heckmann, D. (2005) Ubiquitous user modelling, New York: IOS Press. Herzog, O., Boronowsky, M., Rugge, I., Glotzbach, U. and Lawo, M. (2007) The future of mobile computing: RD activities in the state of Bremen, Internet Research, Vol. 17, Issue 5, pp. 495-504. Info World (2009) Apples iPhone software strategy moves me, [online] Available at: https://www.infoworld.com/t/platforms/apples-iphone-software-strategy-moves-me-646 [Accessed 22 April 2011]. Kaschek, R. (2008) Information Systems and E-Business Technologies: 2nd Inte rnational United Information Systems Conference, New York: Springer. Kotulic, A. and Clark, J. (2004) Why there arent more information security research studies, Information Management, Vol. 41, pp. 597-607. Kumkum, G. (2010) Mobile Computing: Theory and Practice, Delhi: Pearson Education India. Mac Daily News (2007) Where might Apple go next in their software strategy?, [online] Available at: https://macdailynews.com/2006/07/24/where_might_apple_go_next_in_their_software_strategy/ [Accessed 22 April 2011]. Mastorakis, N. (2009) Proceedings of the European Computing Conference, New York: Springer. Mobile Computing Today (2011) iPad 2 launches in the UK, [online] Available at: https://www.mobilecomputingtoday.co.uk/news/article/ipad-2-launches-in-uk [Accessed 22 April 2011]. Srivastava, S. and Teo, T. (2009) E-Government, E-Business, and National Economic Performance, Communications of AIS, Vol. 26, pp. 267-286. Talukdar, A. (2010) Mobile Computing, 2E, New Yo rk: Tata McGraw-Hill Education. TechNet Magazine (2011) Windows Phone 7: Enterprises Go with Windows Phone 7, [online] Available at: https://www.macworld.com.au/news/analysis-nokia-microsoft-deal-is-a-win-for-apple-24333/ [Accessed 22 April 2011]. Umar, A. (2006) Mobile Computing and Wireless Communications, 2nd ed., New York: NGE Solutions. Upadhyaya, S. (2005) Mobile computing: implementing pervasive information and communications technologies, 2nd ed., New York: Springer. Word Cast (2011) Apple iPad 2 Announced: Pushing Mobile Tablet Computing Further, [online] Available at: https://wordcastnet.com/2011/apple-ipad-2-announced-pushing-mobile-tablet-computing-further/ [Accessed 22 April 2011]. Zheng, P. and Ni, L. (2006) Smart phone and next generation mobile computing, New York: Morgan Kaufmann.
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Monday, May 18, 2020
Sarah Benesh Dr. Susan Dauer English 1102 2 Febuary 2011 Analyzation of Ã¢â¬Å"Everyday UseÃ¢â¬ by Alice Walker In 1972, Alice Walker published Ã¢â¬Å"Everyday UseÃ¢â¬ in a collection of short stories In Love and Trouble: Stories of Black women. As better known Ã¢â¬Å"Everyday UseÃ¢â¬ stood out of the collection, it has become one of few short stories about the conflict black Americans faced after the Civil Rights Movement; The struggle to maintain traditions, whilst embracing new-found freedom, and where the two worlds collided. Discussing the reoccurring themes, symbols and motifs through the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s perception, and actions will reveal if the character, and ultimately the reader himself has grown or remained static in affect of the conflict. AsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This upsets the Narrator, Mama, she makes reference to Maggie being able to put them to everyday use, and she can always quilt more; while Dee adamantly protests. Mama makes a move to recover the quilts and Dee pulls them away and Ma ma thinks to herself Ã¢â¬Å"They already belonged to herÃ¢â¬ (Walker 456). In MamaÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective, the point of the quilts was the tradition of quilting, not the quilts themselves. She views Dee as someone to wants to act out the movements of appreciation of their culture, instead of passing it on. In the act of retrieving the quilts from DeeÃ¢â¬â¢s grip, and returning them to Maggie, Mama reveals herself as an unknowing, round character that can re-act differently than what is expected of her. Mama stands up for the true traditions in the face of her daughter, although her daughter believes herself to be the all knowing one. As well as the theme of old black world verses new, we come across the motif of names and re-naming within the short story. Just as Dee comes home dressed in African styled clothing, she re-names herself Ã¢â¬Å"Wangero Leewanika KemanjoÃ¢â¬ to represent her full transformation into a true African woman. Her boyfriendÃ¢â¬â¢s name Ã¢â¬Å"Hakim.a. barberÃ¢â¬ also hints to the fact that he also took up the Muslim faith in an attempt of reform. Mama makes an effort to educate Dee on her name; how it was passed through generations and holds value in itself. Dee dismisses this fact, and it reveals Dees ignorance of the lineage of strong women she was bornShow MoreRelatedEveryday Use By Alice Walker852 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescomes or belongs to one by reason of birth. In Ã¢â¬Å"Everyday UseÃ¢â¬ , by Alice Walker, the theme of the story can be considered as the meaning of heritage or even the power of education. Alice Walker uses many symbols and motifs such as the following: quilts, education, knowledge, Asalamalakim, and the renaming of Dee. In the story, African heritage and knowledge takes a major role. The African heritage plays a major role in the story, Ã¢â¬Å"Everyday UseÃ¢â¬ . Alice Walker emphasizes the meaning of heritage by havingRead MoreEveryday Use By Alice Walker1372 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEverday UseÃ¢â¬ research paper In Ã¢â¬Å"everyday Use,Ã¢â¬ Alice Walker tells a narrative of a motherÃ¢â¬â¢s frustrating relationship together with her two daughters. At this facet, Ã¢â¬Å",Everyday UseÃ¢â¬ , tells that how a mom little by little refuses the cursory values of her older, successful daughter at the aspect of the useful values of her younger, much less lucky daughter. On a deeper outlook, Alice Walker takes on the theme of heritage and its norms as it applies to African-Americans. Everday Use, is set insideRead MoreEveryday Use By Alice Walker1102 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespoem Ã¢â¬Å"Aunt JenniferÃ¢â¬â¢s TigersÃ¢â¬ can be read similar to Alice Walker s short story Everyday UseÃ¢â¬ both are compared by the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s ways of showing their strengths and how they identify their values, expressions and strength. Advertised in the general outlines of the plot, both literary themes talks of a quest for freedom, the characters identity and self-expression. Adrienne Rich Ã¢â¬Å"Aunt JenniferÃ¢â¬â¢s TigersÃ¢â¬ Alice Walker Ã¢â¬Å"Everyday UseÃ¢â¬ Comparison Paper Analyzing the two types of literatureRead MoreEveryday Use By Alice Walker1372 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessociety as a whole, but more specifically in the African American Community. Alice Walker gives slight insight intoÃ what being forcedÃ to assimilate is like. She says in her short story Everyday Use: She will stand hopelessly in corners homely and ashamed of the burn scars down her arms and legs eyeing her sister with a mixture of envy and awe. Statements such as these are a regular occurrence in her works. Walker often speaks on the ever so disheartening topic of cultural assimilation and theRead MoreEveryday Use By Alice Walker996 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIn the short story Ã¢â¬Å"Everyday UseÃ¢â¬ by Alice Walker, the author describes different ideas about oneÃ¢â¬â¢s heritage. Culture and heritage is at the main point of the story Ã¢â¬Å"Everyday UseÃ¢â¬ by Alice Walker as symbolized by the quilt. The bond that Mother and Maggie share is brought by their common talent to make works of art like quilts. Dee does not have similar capacity because she does not appreciate manual labor nor believes in her heritage. The idea of pride in culture, heritage, and family is the mainRead MoreEveryday Use By Alice Walker1721 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn her short story Ã¢â¬Å"Everyday Use,Ã¢â¬ Alice Walker summarizes the representation of the beauty, the conflicts and struggles within African-American culture. Ã¢â¬Å"Everyday UseÃ¢â¬ focuses mainly between members of the Johnson family, consisting of a mother and her two daughters. One of the daughters Maggie, who was injured in a house fire and has living a shy life clinging to her mother for security. Her older sister is Dee, who grew up with a grace and natural beauty. Ã¢â¬Å"Dee is lighter than Maggie, with nicerRead MoreEveryday Use By Alice Walker1655 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn Ã¢â¬Å"everyday Use,Ã¢â¬ Alice Walker tells a narrative of a motherÃ¢â¬â¢s frustrating relationship together with her two dau ghters. At this facet, Ã¢â¬Å",Everyday UseÃ¢â¬ , tells that how a mom little by little refuses the cursory values of her older, successful daughter at the aspect of the useful values of her younger, much less lucky daughter. On a deeper outlook, Alice Walker takes on the theme of heritage and its norms as it applies to African-Americans. Everday Use, is set inside the late ,60s or mid ,70sRead MoreEveryday Use By Alice Walker1735 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Ã¢â¬Å"Everyday UseÃ¢â¬ by Alice Walker and Ã¢â¬Å"BrowniesÃ¢â¬ by ZZ Packer are two different short stories with different lessons but both talk about the topic of race. Both stories talks about the time in the 20th century when slavery just ended but racism are still active between African Americans and Caucasians. Walker described a story about a single African American mother who is waiting for her daughter to arrive from college. Packer described a story about these African American fourth graders who are inRead MoreEveryday Use By Alice Walker1111 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagestheir culture. Alice Walker highlights and distinguishes the dissimilarities and clichÃ © of country African American women with the actualities that make up their lives. Characterized by short, compound sentences, with long adjectives and use of literary elements, her style is eloquent co nversational and authentic. Alice WalkerÃ¢â¬â¢s short story, Everyday Use is stylistic, ironic and narrates profound interpretation of unique views and approaches to African-American culture. WalkerÃ¢â¬â¢s use of characterizationRead MoreEveryday Use By Alice Walker1725 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages17 April 2017 Everything is Not What it Seems Sometimes people forget that heritage has to do with truly understanding their past. Many often misrepresent it, especially the younger generations who just accept its presence. Alice WalkerÃ¢â¬â¢s short story, Ã¢â¬Å"Everyday Use,Ã¢â¬ revolves around an African American family that consists of three women, who are very different from each other. The story begins with Maggie and Mama waiting in the yard for Dee, the main character, to visit from Augusta. Dee is
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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Native North Americans: Justification for Indians Throughout the history of America many people, and even countries have helped create the government and all the cities to be what they are today. Without those who traveled here in the 15th, and 16th century many of us wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be here now; living free, and comfortably with many jobs and opportunities for ourselves. With greatness there is always a downfall, but because we worship and thank early settlers we do not pay much mind to those who were here before us. We are so overwhelmed with the storyÃ¢â¬â¢s that scholars and the government want us to know and read about in textbooks many lack the truth to how the United States was really made, and how terrible the early settlers treated theÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This cruelty they were put through went on for a very long time; it drove tribes apart, they lost their land and homes, and many lives were taken. Native North Americans did help shape AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s History, they went through so much for their people while early settlers were taking their land, animals, food, and even women. Many tribes are still around and you can visit many Indian reservations,legal designation for an area of land managed by a Native American tribe, throughout America and even learn the many interesting and good things about the Natives,and learn about their tribe and culture. Native Americans, also known as Indians, have inhabited the United States for a great deal of time even before the Pre-Columbian Era,Ã¢â¬ spread southward throughout the Americas and possibly going as far south as the Antarctic peninsula. This migration may have begun as early as 30,000 years ago and continued through to about 10,000+ years ago, when the land bridge became submerged by the rising sea level caused by the ending of the last glacial periodÃ¢â¬ (Kennedy, Cohen Bailey 2006, p. 6). Countless numbers of different tribes and cultures roamed the lands of America from coast to coast; they are the true ancestors of the United States. These Natives were known for their respect to the land and the people of the land, they thrived off of what mother nature had to offer, and theyShow MoreRelatedJohn O Sullivan s Manifest Destiny938 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthey had the right to take land from Native Americans of North America, and make it their own, all under the jurisdiction of God - and OÃ¢â¬â¢Sullivan put a name to this belief in 1839: Manifest destiny. Manifest Destiny resulted through misguided beliefs of predestination and white superiority, in which white men, despite opposition, forced their way to the west coast of America. Motives of religion, economic, race, and nationalism contributed to the justification of their ambitious goals and the repercussionsRead MoreHistory Of The American Western Frontier Through Narratives, Testimonies, And Primary Documents1350 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageshistorical books, this book offers a different angle on viewing the history of the American western frontierÃ¢â¬âthrough narratives, testimonies, and primary documents that capture the true voices of the Native Americans. Spanning across the 1860s to the 1890s, Dee Brown tells the plight of the Native Americans after their contact with the American settlers and the United States government. The repetitive stories of the Native American groups during the second h alf of the nineteenth centuryÃ¢â¬â the welcoming ofRead MoreRed, White, and Black Essay1123 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesand Native Americans. The institution of slavery was a return investment venture for southern planters in their greed for the production of more staple crops. Many white Americans led extravagant lifestyles from the large incomes they received from the labors of their property. Also, the controversy over removing the Native AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s from their lands portrayed the voracity in which the European Americans afflicted upon the native civilizations during the antebellum United States. The Indian RemovalRead MoreChristopher Columbus and His Legacy: Positive vs. Negative Essay1435 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesof hope, glory, and accomplishment, (Morrison 223). By discovering the New World, Columbus set into motion the fervor for European discovery in the Americas and beyond. Defenders of Columbus assert it was him that brought Western Civilization to North AmericaÃâ"the c atalyst for the flourishing of colonies that would ultimately culminate with the establishment of an important nation, the United States. Aware that Norse voyages beat the voyages of Columbus in transatlantic contact, supporters maintainRead More Oppression of American Indians in Our Hearts Fell to the Ground1318 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages From the Sioux in the North, to the Tonkawa in the South, tribes filled North America when the Europeans first set foot on the soil that we now know as the United States. The relationship between the Native American tribes and the Europeans had its fair share of difficulties for the next thirty years. Faced with the threat of the westward movement, as well as the ruthless military treatment that came with it, the North Americans began their unjustified, inhumane battle for survival. The EuropeansRead MoreMass Media, Legislation And Education Play Critical Roles Essay715 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages when the English invaded North America, they deculturalized and spread violence against Native Americans through legislation and education. In North America, the clash of languages and cultures brought about cultural bigotry and racism. The English classified all Native Americans as Ã¢â¬Å"domestic foreigners,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"pagans,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"savages.Ã¢â¬ Due to this, it was easy for the English to turn cultural differences into racial ones and for English settlers to consider Native Americans as inferior. Consequently,Read MoreRemoval Act of 1830 Essay1481 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesman many thousands of years ago from Eurasia to the American continent. The people from the migration to the Americas had absolutely no contact with the people in Europe and Asia after they migrated. In fact, the two civilizations evolved in totally different manners, and at different s peeds. The people in the Americas, or Native Americans existed mainly as hunter-gatherers using tools of bone, wood, and useful animal parts. Native Americans formed their beliefs into many different religions,Read MoreColonial Survival, Prosperity, and Entitlement in the New World1450 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesand long-term impact on the native cultures and provided the Europeans with justification for the position of power of which they grabbed hold. The Europeans, however, owe the Native Americans a great debt of gratitude: without the Native Americans, Europeans would have either starved or left for lack of purpose and would not have developed any sort of economy Ã¢â¬â particularly one predicated in the contributions of their inferiors. The attempt to homogenize Native Americans as a single people or cultureRead More Native American and The US government Essay1169 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesNative American and The US government The Iroquois Nation was a nation of five tribes, which was comprised of Mohawks, Senecas, Oneidas, Cayugas, and Onondagas. These tribes were originally separated, but later brought together by two Indians named Hiawatha and Deganawidah. Hiawatha seemed to be the spokesman while Deganawidah took on the role as a philosopher. These two men formed a nation where some of the ideas are still intact today. One aspect that made them so strong was the wayRead MoreComparison Of Treatments Of Native Americans In The East And West1573 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEast of the Mississippi Early European colonists that came to North America found a sparsely inhabited coastline which gave them opportunities to settle and succeed where others had previously failed. Since many of the pilgrims were in search of religious freedom they saw a land their god had prepared for them by wiping out the natives through pestilence and disease. The fact is that the plague of disease that wiped out more than 90% of the original inhabitants of the northern east coast was
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Question: Discuss about the Contract Law for Commentaries, Cases and Perspectives. Answer: Introduction A contract is a legally binding document which comprises of a promise. In a contract, a party offers to do something in exchange for consideration from the other party. This consideration has to have an economic value. Further, the offer has to be accepted, and a counter offer is not considered as an acceptance. The parties to a contract must be free of any duress or undue pressure (Mulcahy, 2008). Broadly, there are two kinds of contract, a verbal and a written. A verbal contract is formed by the exchange of words and has an ease in the formation process. A written contract contains all the terms of such promise in a written manner which is signed by the parties to the contract. A contract has six major elements, and these are an offer, an acceptance, a consideration, intent, consent, and the capacity. For a contract to be formed, an offer has to be made. This offer then has to be accepted by the other party. The contract has to have an economic consideration (Mallor et al, 2010). This consideration can be anything which is decided by the parties as long as it has an economic value. The intent to enter into a contract has to be clear. The consent of the parties has to be clearly established. The parties should want to enter into such contract and must not be under any kind of duress or undue influence. Lastly, the parties should be of sound mental capacity and should have the legal capacity to enter into the contract (Frey Frey, 2005). In the following parts, the various aspects of a contract and how they affect a transaction have been covered. Further, the remedies available to various parties of the contract have also been stated below. In the given question, the point of issue is whether a contract has been formed and if it has been formed who were the parties to the contract. In the case of Alan and Bernard, the offer was made by Alan on November 1, 2005, through his Facebook page. On this offer, a counter offer was made by Bernard in the Facebook wall on November 2, 2005. This counter offer would not be considered as an acceptance as was held in the case of Hyde v. Wrench (1840) 3 Beav 334 (McKendrick, 2014). On November 3, 2005, Bernard decided to buy Alans material and posted the consideration amount to Alan and informed Alan about the money. Alan received the cash on November 5, 2005, and kept the money. Further, in this case, On November 3, 2005, Alan had rejected Bernards offer stating that he had another offer. Here, the offer would be considered as accepted by Bernard. To establish if a promise is being fulfilled by the other party, the payment of consideration is taken into account. Postage is one of the standard mediums of paying the consideration amount. In the case of Adams v. Lindsell (1818) 106 ER 250, it was established that the contract is considered as enforceable at the moment the acceptance is posted (Gibson Fraser, 2013). So, the method of using the post for paying the consideration is a valid one. Bernard had told Alan to look out for money, which was being paid in exchange for Alans material and hence would be considered as his acceptance of the offer. It has already established that a contract has to be supported by consideration for it to be enforceable and so, the element of consideration was present in this case. As there was a presence of offer, acceptance, consideration, capacity, intention between Alan and Bernard, a contract was formed (Andrews, 2015). In the case of Alan and Charleen, the offer was made to the friends of Alan who were students enrolling or enrolled in Kaplan Higher Education. Charleen was Alans sister and not friend plus he was also not a student of Kaplan Higher Education, so the offer was never made for her. When the offer was not made, it cannot be accepted. There is no intent on the part of Alan to sell his sister the book. So here, no contract was formed between Alan and his sister Charleen. In the case of Alan and Damien, the offer would be considered to have been made to Damien. Damien is Bernards friend and not on Alans Facebook. Though, he is a person studying in Kaplan Higher Education. This offer was made for friends who are enrolled in Kaplan Higher Education and is a general reference to the students of Kaplan Higher Education. So, an offer would be considered to have been made in this case. The offer would be considered as accepted in this case. Acceptance can be inferred from the conduct of a person as was seen in the case of Brogden v. Metropolitan Railway Company (1877) 2 App. Cas. 666 (Riordan, 2003). Here, Damien called Alan to convey his acceptance. Further, on November 04, 2015, Damien paid Alan the consideration. So from his conduct, it was clear that Damien had in fact accepted the offer, and it was communicated. There was a presence of other elements of a contract, viz., content and intent. So, a contract was formed in this case. So, the contract was formed between Alan and Bernard, and Alan and Damien. The contract between Alan and Bernard was a valid one as the consideration of Bernard was received before the consideration of Damien. Here, Bernard has two grounds for seeking remedies. The first one is based on the breach of contract. Alan had promised to give the Book along with his handwritten notes. In reality, Alan just provided Bernard the Book and failed to provide the handwritten notes, which he had given to Damien. So, the promise, which was the base of this contract, was not fulfilled and hence, Damien can sue for a breach of contract. The second ground for seeking a remedy is the breach of contract by the reasons of the sale of a product to another person. When the promise was made between Alan and Bernard regarding the sale of Book and handwritten notes, Alan had to sell the said products to Bernard only. But in reality, he sold the same product to Damien. Further, Alan misrepresented the fact that the book contained the notes and hence is liable for negligent misstatement (Singapore Legal Advice, 2014). So, again a breach of contract was established. The Book was issued free of charge by the Kaplan Higher Education. But Alan was selling his textbook along with his notes. He was free to do so as there was no restriction on the sale of such book. Further, there is a principle of caveat emptor which means that the buyer has to be aware regarding the price and quality of what they purchase (Bono, 2006). So, Alan is not liable for such sale and hence, Bernard has no remedy available to him on this ground. Here, Bernard is eligible for breach of contract because of defective performance and contractual damages. In such a case, a court will award monetary damages for the defective performance and contractual damages (Singapore Law, 2016). Further, Bernard could get an order for specific performance whereby Alan would be ordered to give Bernard his notes. Further, an injunction for the sale of Book and notes to Damien could also be attained so as to stop such sale. Here, it can be concluded that Bernard is the aggrieved party, and so, he can sue Alan for monetary damages and equitable damages (Ayres Klass, 2012). There was no contract formed in the case of Charleen and Alan. Without a contract, and breach thereof, no remedy is available to the parties. A contract was formed between Alan and Damien. But the promise, which was the base of this contract, was not fulfilled by Alan. The reason behind this is that the promise of the product and consideration was already accepted by Bernard, and hence, the contract on the same promise could not be made by Damien. The consideration of Damien reached Alan on November 4, 2015, in the evening. The consideration of Bernard had already been posted on the morning of November 4, 2015, and so Bernards consideration would be deemed to be the consideration. This establishes that Alan is in Breach of Contract (Clarke Clarke, 2016). Further, Alan never provided Damien the book he promised. He had purchased the same textbook from a store and gave it to Damien along with his notes. So, he had breached the material promise of this contract and was held in breach of contract. Here, Damien can sue Alan for a breach of contract. He is liable to damages in the form of monetary compensation. Further, Damien has a right to rescind this contract as there was a misrepresentation on the part of Alan that he was selling Damien the Book when in reality he had already sold the Book to Bernard. So, it can be concluded that Damien is the aggrieved party in this case and sue Alan for monetary damages and get the contract rescinded (Elliot, s2011). In the case of a dispute, various dispute redressal options are available to the parties to the contract and these include mediation, arbitration, and litigation. Mediation is one of the methods of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) in Singapore (State Courts Singapore, 2016). It is one of the flexible practices through which an impartial mediator helps the parties in settlement of negotiations so as to reach the solution to the dispute without going to court. In mediation, the solution to a solution is provided rather than deciding the faults of parties involved. The advantages of mediation the control over the outcome as the parties to the dispute mutually decide the settlement. Further, by not going to Court, the matter remains confidential and private. Since the mediator is impartial, the settlement is considered fair. Mediation is also flexible and is more informal. Lastly, the cost of mediation is usually lesser than the trial proceedings. The biggest disadvantage of meditation is that it does not always result in a settlement agreement. Further, the settlement is not binding as mediation does not have the protection of the constitution. Also, the parties cannot be forced to fully disclose any fact, which can be done by law in a trial case. Further, a reliance on previous cases of mediation cannot be made, which is usually done in trial cases. Arbitration is another form of ADR in Singapore. In Arbitration, the disputing parties refer the case to an arbitrator who is mutually elected by such parties. These parties are bound by the award, which is the decision, of arbitration. Usually, the contracts provide a clause of arbitration which contains the details regarding applicable legislature and a number of arbitrators. Usually, one or three arbitrators are chosen for ADR dispute (London, 2013). In case, a contract does not contain an arbitration clause; it can still be referred to by the parties of the contract. A famous case of arbitration was seen in the case of Yahoo Inc. v. Microsoft Corp (Law 360, 2016). The advantages of arbitration include the freedom to choose the arbitrator (or judge) which cannot be done in the case of a trial. Arbitration is faster, confidential and has the freedom to choose any language. The disadvantages of arbitration are similar to mediation. In arbitration also, the full disclosure cannot be forced. Further, arbitration awards are not enforceable unless a court confirms the award. And even though it is considered speedier than court but the absence of parties or judges in hearings can delay such proceedings. The most common form of ADR is litigation. In litigation, the aggrieved party can sue the breaching party and the court solves the dispute in such a case. The aggrieved party can claim for remedies in nature of monetary damages and equitable remedies. The remedies are awarded at the discretion of the court and are binding on the parties. As litigation order is binding on parties, this method is considered as the most favorable. Further, the court can force the disclosure of full facts. Though litigations take time, the final order is binding, lawful and uniform for all the parties. Further, in case a party is not satisfied with the order of the court, they can appeal against such order. To conclude, there are various ways given under ADR to solve a dispute. But the most favored method is litigation due to its enforceability. References Andrews, N. (2015). Contract Law (2nd ed.). UK: Cambridge University Press. Ayres, I., Klass, G. (2012).Studies in Contract Law (8th ed.). New York: Foundation Press. Bono, J. (2006). Caveat Emptor, Let the Buyer Beware: A Consumers Guide to Mental Health Services, Volume 1. Bloomington: AuthorHouse Clarke, P., Clarke, J (2016). Contract Law: Commentaries, Cases and Perspectives (3rd ed.). South Melbourne: Oxford University Press. Elliot, C. (2011). Contract Law (8th ed.). London: Pearson. Frey, H P., Frey, M A. (2005). Essentials of Contract Law (3rd ed.). Portland: Delmar Cengage Learning. Gibson, A., Fraser, D. (2013). Business Law 2014. NSW: Pearson Australia. Law 360. (2016). Microsoft Case Is Great Example of Emergency Arbitration. Retrieved on 14/09/16 from: https://www.law360.com/articles/495144/microsoft-case-is-great-example-of-emergency-arbitration London, A. (2013). Anatomy of an arbitration Part II: Key elements of an arbitration clause. Retrieved on 14/09/16 from: https://www.ashurst.com/doc.aspx?id_Content=9363 Mallor, J., et al. (2010). Business Law: The Ethical, Global, and E-commerce Environment. (14th ed.) Boston: McGraw Hill. McKendrick, E. (2014). Contract Law: Text, Cases, and Materials (6th ed., pp 80-81). UK: Oxford University Press. Mulcahy, L. (2008). Contract Law in Perspective (5th ed.). Cavendish, London: Routledge. Riordan, J.O. (2003). A2 Law for OCR (pp 187-188). Oxford: Heinemann Educational Publishers. Singapore Law (2016). The Law of Contract. Retrieved on 14/09/16 from: https://www.singaporelaw.sg/sglaw/laws-of-singapore/commercial-law/chapter-8 Singapore Legal Advice. (2014). Breach of Contract in Singapore. Retrieved on 14/09/16 from: https://singaporelegaladvice.com/law-articles/breach-of-contract-in-singapore/ State Courts Singapore. (2016). An Overview Of Mediation. Retrieved on 14/09/16 from: https://www.statecourts.gov.sg/Mediation_ADR/Pages/An-Overview%20of%20Mediation.aspx.
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